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Interpretable solutions for breast cancer diagnosis with grammatical evolution and data augmentation

Medical imaging diagnosis increasingly relies on Machine Learning (ML) models. This is a task that is often hampered by severely imbalanced datasets, where positive cases can be quite rare. Their use is further compromised by their limited interpretability, which is becoming increasingly important. While post-hoc interpretability techniques such as SHAP and LIME have been used with some success on so-called black box models, the use of inherently understandable models makes such endeavours more fruitful. This paper addresses these issues by demonstrating how a relatively new synthetic data generation technique, STEM, can be used to produce data to train models produced by Grammatical Evolution (GE) that are inherently understandable. STEM is a recently introduced combination of the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE), Edited Nearest Neighbour (ENN), and Mixup; it has previously been successfully used to tackle both between-class and within-class imbalance issues. We test our technique on the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) and the Wisconsin Breast Cancer (WBC) datasets and compare Area Under the Curve (AUC) results with an ensemble of the top three performing classifiers from a set of eight standard ML classifiers with varying degrees of interpretability. We demonstrate that the GE-derived models present the best AUC while still maintaining interpretable solutions.


Funding

SFI Centre for Research Training in Artificial Intelligence

Science Foundation Ireland

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Automatic Design of Digital Circuits (ADDC)

Science Foundation Ireland

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History

Publication

Smith, S., Correia, J., Cintrano, C. (eds) Applications of Evolutionary Computation. EvoApplications 2024. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 14634.

Publisher

Springer

Rights

This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-56852-7_15

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  • Computer Science & Information Systems

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