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A systematic review and meta‑analysis assessing the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in acute gastrointestinal bleeding

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posted on 2024-05-01, 08:14 authored by Oisín O'Donnell, Clodagh Gallagher, Matthew G. Davey, Jonathan A. Coulter, Mark Regan

Introduction Gastrointestinal bleeding results in significant morbidity, cost and mortality. TXA, an antifibrinolytic agent, has been proposed to reduce mortality; however, many studies report conflicting results. Methods The aim of the study was to perform the first systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs to evaluate the efficacy TXA for both upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. This was performed per PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane and Scopus databases were searched for RCTs. Dichotomous variables were pooled as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the MH method with random effects modelling. Results Fourteen RCTs were identified with 14,338 patients and mean age of 58.4 years. 34.9% (n=5008) were female and 65.1% (n=9330) male. There was no significant difference in mortality between TXA and placebo (RR 0.86 95% CI (0.74 to 1.00), P: 0.05). The secondary outcomes, similarly, did not yield significant results. These included rebleeding, need for surgical intervention (RR: 0.75 95% CI (0.53, 1.07)), endoscopic intervention (RR: 0.92 95% CI (0.70, 1.22)), transfusion requirement (RR: 1.01 95% CI (0.94, 10.7)) and length of stay (RR: 0.03 95% CI (−0.03, 0.08)). There was no increased risk of VTE, RR: 1.29 95% CI (0.53, 3.16). One trial (n=12,009) reported an increased risk of seizure in the TXA group, RR: 1.73 95% CI (1.03–2.93). Conclusion TXA does not reduce mortality in patients with acute upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding and may confer an increased risk of seizures. The authors do not recommend the use of TXA in acute gastrointestinal bleeding



Irish Journal of Medical Science 193, pp.705–719



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