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An empirical assessment  of the factors infuencing  acceptance of COVID‑19 vaccine  uptake between Kenyan  and Hungarian residing  populations: A cross‑sectional  study

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-07-03, 11:41 authored by John M. Macharia, Grace W. Gakenya, Nóra Rozmann, David OnchongaDavid Onchonga, Ruth W. Mwangi, Zsolt Kaposztas, John M. Mathenge, Dorina Pusztai, Marton Pinter, Miklos Sugar, Bence L. Raposa

The development of efective, safe, and acceptable vaccines is a long process. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy continues to elicit mixed reactions among diferent quarters despite numerous evidence of their efectiveness. This study aimed to determine the availability and acceptance rates of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, among Kenyan and Hungarian residing populations and the underlying reasons contributing to the hesitancy of uptake. A non-probability, snowball sampling design was employed, and a survey questionnaire tool link was expeditiously disseminated. Data were carefully analyzed descriptively. Demographic variables, COVID-19 awareness, possible exposure, reasons associated with hesitancy in taking up a vaccine, choice of a vaccine, and availability of vaccines among other important variables were tested to explore their associations with vaccine acceptance rates between the two distinct countries. A total of 1960 participants were successfully enrolled in the research study, while 67 participants were excluded based on the inclusion criterion set. There was, however, no signifcant diference in COVID-19 public awareness between the Kenyan and Hungarian-residing participants, p = 0.300. Of the respondents, 62.4% were willing and ready to receive vaccines against COVID-19 disease. There was a signifcant diference (p= 0.014) between the Kenyan and Hungarian-residing respondents concerning vaccine uptake and acceptance rates. The vaccine acceptance rates in Hungary were higher than in Kenya, with mean= 0.27, SD= 0.446, S. E= 0.045 for the Hungarian population sample and mean= 0.40, SD= 0.492, S. E= 0.026, for the Kenyan sample respectively. Concerning gender and vaccine acceptance, there was a notable signifcant diference between males and females, p = 0.001, where the mean for males and females were 0.29 and 0.46 respectively. Acceptance rates among males were higher than among females. The functions of One-Way ANOVA and Chi-square were used to establish any signifcant diferences and associations between means and variables respectively. Concerns regarding the safety, efcacy, and accuracy of information about the developed vaccines are signifcant factors that must be promptly addressed, to arrest crises revolving around COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, especially in Kenya and among females in both populations, where acceptance rates were lower. Expansion of the screening program to incorporate antibody (serology) tests, is also highly recommended in the present circumstance. Equitable distribution of vaccines globally should be encouraged and promoted to adequately cover low- and middle-income countries. To enhance efective combat on vaccination hesitancy and apprehension in diferent countries, mitigation techniques unique to those countries must be adopted.



Scientific Reports, 2022, 12, 22262

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