Design and piezoelectric energy harvesting properties of a ferroelectric cyclophosphazene salt
Cyclophosphazenes offer a robust and easily modifiable platform for a diverse range of functional systems that have found applications in a wide variety of areas. Herein, for the first time, it reports an organophosphazene-based supramolecular ferroelectric [(PhCH2NH)6P3N3Me]I, [PMe]I. The compound crystallizes in the polar space group Pc and its thin-film sample exhibits remnant polarization of 5 µC cm−2. Vector piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) measurements indicated the presence of multiaxial polarization. Subsequently, flexible composites of [PMe]I are fabricated for piezoelectric energy harvesting applications using thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) as the matrix. The highest open-circuit voltages of 13.7 V and the maximum power density of 34.60 µW cm−2 are recorded for the poled 20 wt.% [PMe]I/TPU device. To understand the molecular origins of the high performance of [PMe]I-based mechanical energy harvesting devices, piezoelectric charge tensor values are obtained from DFT calculations of the single crystal structure. These indicate that the mechanical stress-induced distortions in the [PMe]I crystals are facilitated by the high flexibility of the layered supramolecular assembly.
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Piezoelectric Biomolecules for lead-free, Reliable, Eco-Friendly Electronics
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PublicationSmall, 2023, 2300792
PublisherWiley and Sons Ltd
Other Funding informationS.D., R.P. contributed equally to this work. This work was supported by SERB, India via Grant no. CRG/2019/004615 (R.B.). R.B. thanks SERB-STAR via Grant no. STR/2021/000016. T.D.A. and D.R.N. were grateful to KAUST and KSC for the financial support. P.A.C. and S.G. acknowledge the support from the Irish Centre for High-End Computing (ICHEC) and Science Foundation Ireland (12/RC/2275_P2). S.G. acknowledges support from the Science Foundation Ireland (21/PATH-S/9737) and the European Union (101039636)
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