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Estimating the cost of delivering tobacco cessation intervention package at noncommunicable disease clinics in two districts of North India

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posted on 2023-09-16, 11:15 authored by Garima Bhatt, Sonu GoelSonu Goel, Tanvi Kiran, Sandeep Grover, Bikash Medhi, Gurmandeep Singh, Sandeep Singh Gill

Introduction: Integrated care is likely to improve outcomes in strained healthcare systems while limiting costs. NCD clinics were introduced under the “National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Stroke” (NPCDCS) in India; how?ever, there is limited literature on the costs of delivering tobacco cessation interventions within NPCDCS. One of the study’s objectives was to estimate the cost of delivering a culturally specific patient-centric behavioral intervention package in two district-level NCD clinics in punjab, India.

Methods: Costing was undertaken using the health systems perspective. A top-down or financial costing approach and a bottom-up or activity-based approach were employed at each step of development and implementation. The opportunity cost was used to include the cost of human resources, infrastructure, and capital resources used. All infrastructure and capital costs were annualized using a 3% annual discount rate. Four additional scenarios were built up concerning three major components to reduce costs further when rolled out on a large scale.

Results: The cost of intervention package development, human resource training, and unit cost of implementation were estimated to be INR 6,47,827 (USD 8,874); INR 134,002 (USD 1810); and INR 272 (USD 3.67), respectively. Based on our sensitivity analysis results, the service delivery cost varied from INR 184 (USD 2.48) to INR 326 (USD 4.40) per patient.

Conclusion: The development costs of the intervention package accounted for the majority proportion of the total cost. Of the total unit cost of implementation, the telephonic follow-up, human resources, and capital resources were the major contributory components.

Implications: The current study aims to fill gaps by estimating the unit-level health systems cost of a culturally sensitive, disease-specific, and patient-centric tobacco cessation intervention package delivered at the outpatient settings of NCD clinics at the secondary level hospital, which represents a major link in the health care system of India. Findings from this study could be used to provide supportive evidence to policymakers and program managers for rolling out such interventions in established NCD clinics through the NPCDCS program of the Indian Government.



Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2023 25, (11), ,pp.1727–1735,


Oxford Academic

Other Funding information

The first author is a recipient of the Indian Council of Medical Research- Junior Research Fellowship (ICMR-JRF) for undergoing a Ph.D. program.

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