University of Limerick
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Investigation of thermal, mechanical and shape memory properties of 3D-printed functionally graded nanocomposite materials †

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posted on 2023-10-20, 07:20 authored by Mohamad AlsaadiMohamad Alsaadi, Eoin HinchyEoin Hinchy, Conor T. McCarthy, Vicente F. Moritz, Alexandre PortelaAlexandre Portela, Declan M. Devine

In this study, a 3D-printed photocurable resin was developed by incorporating graphene nanoplatelets functionalised with melamine to investigate the thermal, mechanical, fracture and shape memory behaviours. The objective of this work was to produce a printed functionally graded nanocomposite material that has a smart temperature-responsive structure; presents good thermal stability, strength and fracture toughness; and can demonstrate shape-changing motions, such as sequential transformations, over time. The functionalised graphene nanoplatelets were examined via thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the degradation temperature of the nanocomposite containing 0.1 wt% of functionalised graphene nanoplatelets at the weight loss of 5% was 304 ◦C, greater than that of the neat one by 29%. Dynamic mechanical analysis results showed property enhancements of the storage modulus and glass transition temperature. Fracture toughness, tensile strength and impact resistance were improved by 18%, 35% and 78%, respectively. The shape memory tests were performed to obtain the temperature-time recovery behaviour of the 3D-printed structures. The addition of functionalised graphene nanoplatelets demonstrated an enhancement in the shape recovery ratios. Generally, the five subsequent cycles were notably stable with a high recovery ratio of 97–100% for the flat shape and circular shape of the M-GNP specimens. On the other hand, these values were between 91% and 94% for the corresponding neat specimens.


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Nanomaterials 13, 2658



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  • (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

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  • School of Engineering

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