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Risk and protective factors for bullying in sport: A scoping review

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journal contribution
posted on 2024-04-02, 10:33 authored by Lisa Kalina, Brendan O'KeeffeBrendan O'Keeffe, Siobhán O’Reilly, Louis Moustakas

The aim of the current study was to examine risk and protective factors related to bullying in sport. Adopting the methodological approach outlined by Arksey and O’Malley (International Journal of Social Research Methodology 8(1):19–32, 2005), 37 articles met the inclusion criteria. A consistent definition of bullying could not be identified in the publications examined, and several articles (n=8) did not explicitly define bullying. The most frequent risk factor identified was an individual’s social background (n=9). Negative influence of coaches (n=5), level of competition (n=5), lack of supportive club culture (n=5) and issues in locker rooms (n=4) were among the most commonly cited risk factors for bullying in sport settings. Preventative policies were cited as the most common method to reduce the incidence of bullying (n=13). Contextually tailored intervention programmes (n=5) were also noted as a key protective factor, particularly for marginalised groups, including athletes with disabilities or members of the LGBTQ+community. The need for sport-specific bullying prevention education was highlighted by 10 of the articles reviewed. In summary, the current review accentuates the range of risk and protective factors associated with sport participation. Furthermore, the need for educational training programmes to support coaches in addressing and preventing bullying within sport settings is emphasised.



International Journal of Bullying Prevention



Other Funding information

FH Kufstein Tirol - University of Applied Sciences. European Commission’s Erasmus+programme Agreement No. 2021-1-IE01-KA220-VET-000034749.

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