University of Limerick
Goel_2023_Trend.pdf (2.6 MB)

Trend of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among young and middle-aged indians: Insights from a nationally representative survey

Download (2.6 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2023-09-19, 14:03 authored by Kartikey Yadav, Shyambhavee Behera, Mitasha Singh, Mamta Parashar, Sonu GoelSonu Goel, Nidhi Jaswal, Arpit Gupta

Background: India, as a nation is witnessing epidemiological transition, which is taking place across all the states at different level, over past couple of decades. Owing to the long natural history of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), early identification of these risk factors can aid in understanding the distribution and future development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Also, studying the trend of these risk factors over time can help in prediction of burden of various CVDs in future. Thus, the present study aims at understanding the trend of various risk factors for CVDs across rural and urban India, and states.

Methods: The present study was conducted using secondary data from the third, fourth and fifth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted in India. The surveys collected data for estimation of burden of the common modifiable risk factors of CVDs including tobacco and alcohol consumption overweight/obesity, raised blood pressure, and raised blood sugar. The analysis for the present study was done among interviewed males and females between 15 and 49 years. The weighted prevalence of these risk factors was computed and binary logistic regression was done to study the predictors for the same.

Results: A declining trend of tobacco (29.2% in NFHS 3; 8.1%in NFHS 5) and alcohol consumption (14.2% in NFHS 3; 3.2%in NFHS 5) was observed from 2005 -06 to 2019–21. A rising trend of overall raised blood pressure (11.4% in NFHS 4; 12.2%in NFHS 5), raised blood sugar (6.2% in NFHS 4; 8.5%in NFHS 5), and overweight and obesity (11.4% in NFHS 3; 23.6%in NFHS 5) was observed from the three rounds of the survey. The odds of all the studied risk factors were significantly higher among older age across all the rounds of the survey. Except overweight/obesity, the odds of rest all studied risk factors was found to be higher among males compared to females. Also, higher odds of alcohol consumption, overweight/obesity, raised blood pressure, and raised blood sugar were found among the participants living in urban areas compared to rural areas, across all the rounds of the survey.

Conclusion: The present highlights the rising burden of CVD risk factors, including overweight and obesity, raised blood pressure and raised blood sugar, and a declining trend of tobacco and alcohol consumption across the country. The study also highlights the need for in-depth assessment of predictors of these risk factors using longitudinal study designs.



International Journal of Cardiology Cardiovascular Risk and Prevention, 2023 19, 200200



Sustainable development goals

  • (3) Good Health and Well-being

Department or School

  • School of Medicine

Usage metrics

    University of Limerick


    No categories selected


    Ref. manager