Using cluster analysis to identify procrastination and student learning strategies in a flipped classroom
Flipped classrooms are becoming increasingly important in higher education. While their value over traditional practices has been identified, it is possible to implement a flipped classroom in many ways. Therefore, research needs to consider the distinct ways flipped classrooms are structured to identify their relative effectiveness. The usefulness of flipped classrooms is reduced when students’ procrastination in the pre-class phase, resulting in a lack of student engagement with online resources. This paper uses a cluster analysis of log-file data from three cohorts of a flipped classroom module, involving 169 undergraduate business students, to identify their learning strategies. It considers when students first begin to access online material and relates this to the timing of their classes and assessments. Two distinct learning strategies were identified. Prepared students accessed online resources as expected in advance of flipped classes. Assessment-focused students used the available resources after class to prepare for impending assessments. Prepared students performed significantly better than those that were assessment focused. In addition, there was more engagement with video-based material over text-based resources and also more engagement when assessments were weekly and low-stakes rather than terminal and higher-stakes. Concsequently, the way in which flipped classrooms are structured can reduce the level of student procrastination present and improve the effectiveness of this method.
PublicationThe International Journal of Management Education 22(1), 100936
Sustainable development goals
- (4) Quality Education
Department or School
- Management & Marketing