Efficacy of COVID-19 treatments among geriatric patients: a systematic review
Introduction: A majority of the fatalities due to COVID-19 have been observed in those over the age of 60. There is no approved and universally accepted treatment for geriatric patients. The aim of this review is to assess the current literature on efficacy of COVID-19 treatments in geriatric populations.
Methods: A systematic review search was conducted in PubMed, MedRxiv, and JAMA databases with the keywords COVID-19, geriatric, hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, budesonide, remdesivir, favipiravir, ritonavir, molnupiravir, tocilizumab, bamlanivimab, baricitinib, sotrovimab, fluvoxamine, convalescent plasma, prone position, or anticoagulation. Articles published from January 2019 to January 2022 with a population greater than or equal to 60years of age were included. Interventions examined included hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, dexamethasone, budesonide, tocilizumab, bamlanivimab, baricitinib, sotrovimab, convalescent plasma, prone position, and anticoagulation therapy. Outcome measures included viral load, viral markers, ventilator-free days, or clinical improvement.
Results: The search revealed 302 articles, 52 met inclusion criteria. Hydroxychloroquine, dexamethasone, and remdesivir revealed greater side effects or inefficiency in geriatric patients with COVID-19. Favipiravir, bamlanivimab, baricitinib, and supportive therapy showed a decrease in viral load and improvement of clinical symptoms. There is conflicting evidence with tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, and anticoagulant therapy in reducing mortality, ventilator-free days, and clinical improvements. In addition, there was limited evidence and lack of data due to ongoing trials for treatments with sotrovimab and budesonide.
Conclusion: No agent is known to be effective for preventing COVID-19 after exposure to the virus. Further research is needed to ensure safety and efficacy of each of the reviewed interventions for older adults.
PublicationAdvances in Infectious Disease, 2022,9
Sustainable development goals
- (3) Good Health and Well-being