University of Limerick
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Fuzzy pattern tree evolution using grammatical evolution

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-07-06, 10:35 authored by Aidan Murphy, Muhammad Sarmad AliMuhammad Sarmad Ali, Douglas Mota DiasDouglas Mota Dias, Jorge Amaral, ENRIQUE NAREDOENRIQUE NAREDO, Conor RyanConor Ryan

A novel approach to induce Fuzzy Pattern Trees using Grammatical Evolution is presented in this paper. This new method, called Fuzzy Grammatical Evolution, is applied to a set of benchmark classification problems. Experimental results show that Fuzzy Grammatical Evolution attains similar and oftentimes better results when compared with state-of-the-art Fuzzy Pattern Tree composing methods, namely Fuzzy Pattern Trees evolved using Cartesian Genetic Programming, on a set of benchmark problems. We show that, although Cartesian Genetic Programming produces smaller trees, Fuzzy Grammatical Evolution produces better performing trees. Fuzzy Grammatical Evolution also benefits from a reduction in the number of necessary user-selectable parameters, while Cartesian Genetic Programming requires the selection of three crucial graph parameters before each experiment. To address the issue of bloat, an additional version of Fuzzy Grammatical Evolution using parsimony pressure was tested. The experimental results show that Fuzzy Grammatical Evolution with this extension routinely finds smaller trees than those using Cartesian Genetic Programming without any compromise in performance. To improve the performance of Fuzzy Grammatical Evolution, various ensemble methods were investigated. Boosting was seen to find the best individuals on half the benchmarks investigated.


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SN Computer Science, 2022, 3, 426



Other Funding information

The authors are supported by Research Grants 13/RC/2094 and 16/IA/4605 from the Science Foundation Ireland and by Lero, the Irish Software Engineering Research Centre ( The third and fourth authors are partially fnanced by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brasil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001, and FAPERJ.

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